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Urinalysis

What is a Urinalysis
A urinalysis is a simple test that looks at a small sample of your urine. It can help find conditions that may need treatment, including infections or kidney problems. It can also help find serious diseases in the early stages, like chronic kidney disease, diabetes, or liver disease. A urinalysis is also called a "urine test".
Description
Tests Included:
  • RBCs Urine
  • Color
  • Epithelial Cell
  • Urobilinogen
  • Leucocytes
  • Ketone
  • Protein Urine
  • Pus Cell
  • Crystals
Benefits
To detect the infection in the urinary tract especially in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain, back pain, painful or frequent urination, blood in the urine.
  • - To evaluate for kidney disorders
  • - To help in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders such as liver diseases, diabetes, etc.
  • - As a part of a routine health check-up
  • - As a work-up for planned surgery
  • - As a routine test in pregnancy to detect the presence of infection or other diseases
How It Works
You will be asked to pee into a clean cup called a "specimen cup". Only a small amount of your urine is needed (about 2 tablespoons) to do the test. Some of the urine is tested right away with a dipstick — a thin, plastic strip that is placed in the urine.
Learn More
A dipstick is a thin, plastic stick with strips of chemicals on it. It is dipped into the urine. The strips change color if a substance is present at a level that is above the normal range.

A dipstick checks for the following:
Acidity (pH) is a measure of the amount of acid in the urine. A pH that is above the normal range may mean you are at risk for a kidney stone, urinary infection, kidney problem, or other disorder.

Protein is an important building block in the body. Everyone has protein in their blood. But it should only be in your blood, not in your urine. Your kidneys play a role in this process. Healthy kidneys remove waste products and extra water from your blood, but leave behind the things your body needs, like protein. When your kidneys are injured, protein leaks into your urine. Having protein in your urine suggests that your kidneys’ filtering units are damaged by kidney disease.

Glucose (sugar) is usually a sign of diabetes.
White blood cells (pus cells) are signs of infection.

Bilirubin is a waste product from the breakdown of old red blood cells. It is normally removed from the blood by the liver. Its presence in the urine may be a sign of liver disease.
Blood can be a sign of an infection, a kidney problem, certain medicines, or even heavy exercise. Finding blood in the urine requires further testing. It does not always mean you have a serious medical problem.

You can learn more at https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/11-10-1815_HBE_PatBro_Urinalysis_v6.pdf